G.E. Moro, S. Arslanoglu, E. Bertino, L. Corvaglia, R. Montirosso, JC. Picaud, S. Polberger, R.J. Schanler, C. Steet, J. van Goudoever, E.E. Ziegler: Human Milk in Feeding Premature lnfants: From Tradition to Bioengineering Proceedings of a Consensus Development Conference-EXPO 2015, Milan, ltaly, May 15-16, JPGN Volume 61, Supplement 1, September 2015 1-19
Guest Editors: Guido E. Moro, Sertac Arslanoglu, Iolanda Minoli
The increasing number of extrcmcly preterm infants who survive at birth and beyond of a gestational age as low as 22 weeks presents a new challenge to neonatal nutrition. In the last few decades, human milk has been identified as the normative standard for premature infant feeding and nutrition from health organizations and scientific societies. In these infants human milk is supposed to confer protection against necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis, and other infections and severe retinopathy; to decrease the risk of death; and to improve long-term neurocognitive development and cardiovascular health outcomes. In addition, the benefits of breast-feeding in psychological health and relational aspects must be considered.
Because of the extremely high nutritional requirements of premature infants, however, human milk must be fortified with nutrients, particularly with protein and minerals, to ensure optimal nutrient intake. Best fortification strategies as well as the “optimal” composition of fortifiers are still objects of research.